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“三无科学家”随便说说就让股票暴涨10亿!原因在这里……

MSN 徽标MSN 2019/6/18 MSN
Artemisia abrotanum. lad's love. abrotano. (Photo by: Paroli Galperti/REDA&CO/UIG via Getty Images) © Getty Artemisia abrotanum. lad's love. abrotano. (Photo by: Paroli Galperti/REDA&CO/UIG via Getty Images)

屠呦呦出生在浙江省宁波市的一个书香世家,她外公姚庆三是知名的经济学家。作为家中独女,屠呦呦在一众兄弟中最得父母宝爱,单看名字就知道是父母费了一番心思才取好的。

“呦呦”这个名字, 来源于《诗经·小雅》第一篇“鹿鸣”篇。这是周天子时代的宫廷乐歌,屠呦呦的父亲给女儿起这个名字,寄希望女儿成为有教养修养懂礼仪的淑女、有文化有学问的才女,又能遇到伯乐。但让她的父亲没想到的是,“呦呦鹿鸣,食野之蒿”,鹿在觅食蒿草,爱女的职业真是与植物天然药草有关,而且凭借“青蒿素”获得诺奖。不鸣则已,一鸣惊人。

屠呦呦不是少年天才,既不能过目不忘,也没有精通理学。连老师都说当时屠呦呦的学习成绩并不突出,而且由于初中时得了肺结核,她休学两年,直到18岁才进入高中,几乎可以说她属于输在起跑线上的学生。

好不容易以21岁“高龄”考入北大,成为第一批女大学生,她却偏偏在药学系学习,进入了名校的中的冷门专业。不过在大学4年期间,她还是踏实学习,在专业课程中,她尤其对植物化学、本草学和植物分类学有着极大的兴趣。 从北京医学院毕业后,屠呦呦被分配在卫生部中医研究院中药研究所工作,在那个“一化三改”的年代,朝阳行业自然是钢铁等向着现代化前进的工业,中医药的研究基本是个坐冷板凳的活,但屠呦呦脑子里没有要为自己某前途的概念,就是一如既往踏实的做自己的本分工作。

甚至在1959-1962年,那么艰苦的一段时期,屠呦呦反倒离职了,去参加卫生部全国中医学习班,她想更加系统地学习了中医药知识,她深入药材公司,向老师傅学习中药鉴别及炮制技术。也许正是有了这些“厚积”,才能有她之后的“薄发”。

A mother and her sick son wait for treatment at the Udier primary health and care center supported by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Udier, in the Upper Nile region, on March 7, 2019. - According to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which supports the tiny clinic where Nyachoat is recovering in Udier village, 70 percent of all illness deaths are due to easily treatable malaria, acute watery diarrhoea and respiratory infections. A study by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) last year showed almost 400,000 people had died as a result of South Sudan's nearly six-year war. Half of these were due to violent deaths, and half due to the increased risk of disease and reduced access to healthcare as a result of the conflict. (Photo by SIMON MAINA / AFP)        (Photo credit should read SIMON MAINA/AFP/Getty Images) © Getty A mother and her sick son wait for treatment at the Udier primary health and care center supported by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Udier, in the Upper Nile region, on March 7, 2019. - According to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which supports the tiny clinic where Nyachoat is recovering in Udier village, 70 percent of all illness deaths are due to easily treatable malaria, acute watery diarrhoea and respiratory infections. A study by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) last year showed almost 400,000 people had died as a result of South Sudan's nearly six-year war. Half of these were due to violent deaths, and half due to the increased risk of disease and reduced access to healthcare as a result of the conflict. (Photo by SIMON MAINA / AFP) (Photo credit should read SIMON MAINA/AFP/Getty Images)

第二次世界大战结束后,引发疟疾的疟原虫产生了抗药性,科学家们开始寻找新药。由于越南对中国的求助,1967年5月23日,国家聚集了当时全国所有药学专业的专家,有数百人参加,启动了“523项目”。两年研究无果后,中国中医研究院接受抗疟药研究任务,39岁的屠呦呦任科技组组长,开始在古老的中医文献中寻找治愈疟疾的方法。

屠呦呦查阅经典医书、地方药志,四处走访老中医,做了2000多张资料卡片,测试了超过2000种草药,最后整理出一个600多种(包括青蒿在内)草药的《抗疟单验方集》。团队随后展开了动物实验。结果出乎意料,有些动物被治愈,有些动物,却被毒死。而坚信青蒿疗法可行的屠呦呦,做出了一个在西方人看来不可理解的决定——以身试药。在医生的监控下,她逐渐增加药剂的服用剂量,堵上自己的健康,终于证明,青蒿素可行。

若是没有在中医领域那三年的系统学习,屠呦呦发现不了青蒿素;同样,若是没有在本科期间学习的西医技术,她也想不到用低温萃取的方法,获得抗疟效果明显的青蒿提取物。虽然以身试药的做法并不值得提倡,是某一时代背景下的特殊产物,因为它既不符合科学规则,也未必能得出普遍性的有效结果,但她敢如此做说明了对自己研发出药品的自信心和责任心。

A worker of the Entomologist Research Centre takes a mosquito to analyse it for the presence of malaria parasite in Obuasi, Ashanti Region, on May 1, 2018. - The centre is set to control and prevent malaria through the analysis of parasites, mosquito monitoring and efficacy testing of insecticides. (Photo by CRISTINA ALDEHUELA / AFP)        (Photo credit should read CRISTINA ALDEHUELA/AFP/Getty Images) © Getty A worker of the Entomologist Research Centre takes a mosquito to analyse it for the presence of malaria parasite in Obuasi, Ashanti Region, on May 1, 2018. - The centre is set to control and prevent malaria through the analysis of parasites, mosquito monitoring and efficacy testing of insecticides. (Photo by CRISTINA ALDEHUELA / AFP) (Photo credit should read CRISTINA ALDEHUELA/AFP/Getty Images)

故事说到这里还远远没到最后的happy ending。虽然团队研制出了治疗疟疾的特效药-青蒿素,是当时乃至现在世界上化学一类药,但由于处于1966-76年的特殊时期,这一本该轰动全球的成果并没有引起重视。

1979年,一篇未署名论文发表,宣告了青蒿素的存在,西方医学界震动。同时,经过多年研究改进,青蒿素药片于1986年获得生产许可,1999年被世界卫生组织添加到基本药物清单。由此,由疟疾引发的死亡人数直线下降50%,有几个国家甚至已经彻底根除疟疾。

有人提议,既然青蒿素的药学意义这么大,应该像盘尼西林一样,申请诺贝尔奖,结果申请报告却被诺贝尔评审委员会退了回来,理由是一个奖项最多有三个人并列申请,不授予集体。当年“523工程”的主要参与者又经过激烈讨论,最后认为最大贡献者为四个人,缺一不可。

同样的尴尬也发生在申报院士的过程中,四位研究者分别多次申报院士,结果都未获准,原因是,四个人中不管谁申报,另外三个人都会举报他,认为自己是青蒿素的最大贡献者。这也许就是为什么屠呦呦没有评上院士,没有获得国家科学大奖的原因。这四个人如果有一个人获得院士,或国家大奖,那就意味着另外三个人处于青蒿素发明者的次要地位。

所以直到2005年,两位美国科学家受邀参加中国的疟疾研讨会,问起谁发明了青蒿素,居然没人知道,连中国科学家自己也是同样一问三不知。两人不懈追查,最终,得到了一份从中国寄出的原始资料,才得以从中拼凑出屠呦呦发明青蒿素的故事,他们将这个故事分享给了拉斯克奖的评委。

(Original Caption) Dr. Sidney Farber, (moustached) and Dr. George Palade, winners of the 1966 Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards, chat with Dr. Michael DeBakey, (wearing glasses), November 15th, who was chairman of the Jury of Eminent Scientists which chose the award winners. Dr. Farber is noted for his childhood cancer research into the structure and functions of the cell. © Getty (Original Caption) Dr. Sidney Farber, (moustached) and Dr. George Palade, winners of the 1966 Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards, chat with Dr. Michael DeBakey, (wearing glasses), November 15th, who was chairman of the Jury of Eminent Scientists which chose the award winners. Dr. Farber is noted for his childhood cancer research into the structure and functions of the cell.

2011年,素有美国医药届诺贝尔奖称号的拉斯克奖评审委员会来到了中国,他们同样遇到了四个人争持不下的情况,拉斯克奖评审委员会给四个人提出两个问题,第一个问题:谁应该获得拉斯克奖?第二个问题:如果你获得不了拉斯克奖,你认为其他三个人中谁最应该获得。结果出来了:第一个问题毫无疑问都是认为自己最应该获得拉斯克奖;第二个问题,有三个人都写的屠呦呦,结果,这一年的拉斯克奖给予了青蒿素发明者,中国专家屠呦呦。

Laureates in the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Front, L to R), Japanese Satoshi Omura and Chinese Youyou Tu, Nobel Literature prize 2015 laureate Belarus Svetlana Alexievitch and Nobel Economics Prize 2015 laureate US-British Angus Deaton attend the 2015 Nobel prize award ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall on December 10, 2015. The Prize ceremony for the 2015 literature, medicine, chemistry, physics and economics Nobel laureates will be followed by the traditional banquet at the Stockholm city hall.  AFP PHOTO / SOREN ANDERSSON / AFP / SOREN ANDERSSON        (Photo credit should read SOREN ANDERSSON/AFP/Getty Images) © Getty Laureates in the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Front, L to R), Japanese Satoshi Omura and Chinese Youyou Tu, Nobel Literature prize 2015 laureate Belarus Svetlana Alexievitch and Nobel Economics Prize 2015 laureate US-British Angus Deaton attend the 2015 Nobel prize award ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall on December 10, 2015. The Prize ceremony for the 2015 literature, medicine, chemistry, physics and economics Nobel laureates will be followed by the traditional banquet at the Stockholm city hall. AFP PHOTO / SOREN ANDERSSON / AFP / SOREN ANDERSSON (Photo credit should read SOREN ANDERSSON/AFP/Getty Images)

所以有人说,屠呦呦获拉斯克奖甚至诺贝尔奖都是捡漏行为,但要想明白这个道理其实很简单,这就像你发明了面包,他发明了大饼,还有人发明的麻花,但是这些都是由面粉制作的,而发明面粉的人正是屠呦呦。所以屠呦呦获奖其实是天经地义、没有争议的。

之后的故事大家都知道了,各类奖项、荣誉的纷至沓来并没有打断这位“三无”科学家的科研步伐,近日屠呦呦和她的团队期又提出应对“青蒿素抗药性”难题的切实可行治疗方案,也获得世界卫生组织(WHO)和国内外权威专家的认可。这一消息带来的联动效果就是9支青蒿素概念股直接涨停,这就是一句话值10个亿的科学家!


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