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涨知识 | 可达鸭爆红!它的“原型”却可能灭绝

MSN 徽标 MSN 2022/5/24

近日,肯德基和宝可梦联名推出了一系列六一儿童节玩具,其中可达鸭一夜爆火。

大量消费者在线高价求购可达鸭,一时之间,一“鸭”难求。

不过大多数人不知道的是,可达鸭的原型-鸭嘴兽,一种澳大利亚特有的物种,正面临着灭绝危机。

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - JUNE 09: A platypus receives a health check at Taronga Zoo on June 09, 2021 in Sydney, Australia. RSPCA NSW has donated $600,000 to fund a new Platypus Rescue and Rehabilitation Centre at Taronga Zoo. While not officially listed as a threatened species, new research suggests the platypus could be on the brink of extinction due to damaged waterways, land clearing and climate change. (Photo by Mark Metcalfe/Getty Images) © 2021 Getty Images SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - JUNE 09: A platypus receives a health check at Taronga Zoo on June 09, 2021 in Sydney, Australia. RSPCA NSW has donated $600,000 to fund a new Platypus Rescue and Rehabilitation Centre at Taronga Zoo. While not officially listed as a threatened species, new research suggests the platypus could be on the brink of extinction due to damaged waterways, land clearing and climate change. (Photo by Mark Metcalfe/Getty Images)

最古老的哺乳动物

鸭嘴兽从身体特征到外貌造型都向人类透露着两个字:古老!

Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus',  c1885, (1890). From Journal of Researchers into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Round the World, under the Command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. by Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. [T. Nelson and Sons, London, 1890]. Artist Robert Taylor Pritchett. (Photo by Print Collector/Getty Images) © The Print Collector Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus', c1885, (1890). From Journal of Researchers into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Round the World, under the Command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. by Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. [T. Nelson and Sons, London, 1890]. Artist Robert Taylor Pritchett. (Photo by Print Collector/Getty Images)

千万年不断进化的动物们,都是从一个古老的物种开始,下边分了好几个分支。而鸭嘴兽从进化开始这个样子一直到现在,亿万年来一直没多少进化过,在哺乳动物冠群中处于一个很原始很基本的位置。哺乳动物的一个重要标志就是胎生,然而鸭嘴兽是卵生。它们产卵后由母兽用体温孵化,但是它们产出的卵非常原始,卵黄小,不能为宝宝提供足够的营养。因此孵化时间短,而孵化出来的小兽也是发育不良。

长相奇特

在人们刚发现鸭嘴兽的时候,一度以为这种物种就是一个恶作剧.

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - FEBRUARY 19: A platypus rises its head above the water at Taronga Zoo on February 19, 2020 in Sydney, Australia. Taronga Zoo is currently caring for seven platypus from Tidbinbilla Reserve, near Canberra in the ACT. The platypus were rescued from their habitat as ponds in the area dried up due to ongoing drought. The area was then affected by bushfires as well. Zoo staff hope to release the platypus back into the wild once conditions improve. Platypuses were once considered widespread across the eastern Australian mainland and Tasmania, although not a lot is known about them because of their secretive and nocturnal nature.  (Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images) © 2020 Getty Images SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - FEBRUARY 19: A platypus rises its head above the water at Taronga Zoo on February 19, 2020 in Sydney, Australia. Taronga Zoo is currently caring for seven platypus from Tidbinbilla Reserve, near Canberra in the ACT. The platypus were rescued from their habitat as ponds in the area dried up due to ongoing drought. The area was then affected by bushfires as well. Zoo staff hope to release the platypus back into the wild once conditions improve. Platypuses were once considered widespread across the eastern Australian mainland and Tasmania, although not a lot is known about them because of their secretive and nocturnal nature. (Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images)

鸭嘴兽体长只有半米左右,它的嘴巴大而扁平,就像鸭嘴一样,前端有两个气孔。没有牙齿,也没有我们平时见到的陆地上的动物那样毛茸茸的耳朵。身上是深褐色的毛发,但是如果没有这些毛发,第一次见到它们可能大家会把它们当做是什么鱼类。鸭嘴兽的爪子也像鸭蹼,但不一样的是有钩爪,四肢短小,有一个扁平的大尾巴。 这样的长相,处处都透露着十足的神奇气息。

后脚有毒刺

鸭嘴兽有一个哺乳动物少有、而爬行动物常见的特征,那就是分泌毒液。

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - JUNE 09: A platypus receives a health check at Taronga Zoo on June 09, 2021 in Sydney, Australia. RSPCA NSW has donated $600,000 to fund a new Platypus Rescue and Rehabilitation Centre at Taronga Zoo. While not officially listed as a threatened species, new research suggests the platypus could be on the brink of extinction due to damaged waterways, land clearing and climate change. (Photo by Mark Metcalfe/Getty Images) © 2021 Getty Images SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - JUNE 09: A platypus receives a health check at Taronga Zoo on June 09, 2021 in Sydney, Australia. RSPCA NSW has donated $600,000 to fund a new Platypus Rescue and Rehabilitation Centre at Taronga Zoo. While not officially listed as a threatened species, new research suggests the platypus could be on the brink of extinction due to damaged waterways, land clearing and climate change. (Photo by Mark Metcalfe/Getty Images)

雄性鸭嘴兽的后脚上有一个刺突,与腺体相连,可分泌毒液。科学家认为鸭嘴兽的毒液更多用在求偶活动中,鸭嘴兽会在争夺伴侣的时候分泌这种毒液,双方互刺,谁能率先将竞争对手麻翻,就能在激烈的战斗中获胜。而如果人不小心被刺伤,也会引起长时间的疼痛。

鸭嘴兽未来或面临灭绝

如此奇奇怪怪又可可爱爱的鸭嘴兽却正面临着生存危机。

鸭嘴兽目前只生活在澳大利亚东海岸和西北海岸,科学家们表示,到2070年,野生鸭嘴兽的数量很有可能会减少66%,气候变化带来的威胁会影响鸭嘴兽的繁殖能力,因此未来它们很可能面临灭绝。

目前,鸭嘴兽已被世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)列为濒危物种红色名录中的“近危物种”。研究人员称,为了防止鸭嘴兽灭绝,他们已经在对其生存环境进行管理,但鸭嘴兽的未来依然不容乐观。

SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - MARCH 03: Platypus Keeper, Rob Dockerill, holds Annie the platypus during a press call at Taronga Zoo on March 03, 2021 in Sydney, Australia. Taronga Conservation Society Australia has joined with NSW Environment Minister Matt Kean to announce a strategic plan on UN World Wildlife Day underpinned by a pledge to save the iconic platypus from extinction. Taronga scientists warn platypus could be extinct in the next 50 years. (Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images) © 2021 Getty Images SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - MARCH 03: Platypus Keeper, Rob Dockerill, holds Annie the platypus during a press call at Taronga Zoo on March 03, 2021 in Sydney, Australia. Taronga Conservation Society Australia has joined with NSW Environment Minister Matt Kean to announce a strategic plan on UN World Wildlife Day underpinned by a pledge to save the iconic platypus from extinction. Taronga scientists warn platypus could be extinct in the next 50 years. (Photo by Lisa Maree Williams/Getty Images)

这么可爱又神奇的动物,它的存在就是活化石一般的存在,给了人们多少对生命的遐想,希望不要真的走到灭绝的地步。

声明:本文综合自网络,内容观点仅作者个人意见,与微软资讯(Microsoft News)及微软无关。

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